Thursday, August 8, 2019

BREEDING TECHNIQUE OF AQUARIUM FISHES


           One of the attractions of Ornamental fish keeping is that the fishes may multiply in captivity. Although many techniques used for Ornamental fish breeding are not much difficult, the breeding methods for specific ornamental fish species are closely guarded secrets. Farmers have opereted almost entirely on their own, developing their own methods and rely on many years of  experimentetion. The chapter provides an overview of freshwater ornamental fish breeding. Because of the great diversity of species, only besic information is presented on breeding technology. Emphasis is placed on providing a summary of essential biological characteristics and requirements that characterize wide variety of species. The aim is to provide specific guidelines to assist in the development of appropriate management practices for freshwater ornamental fish breeding.

  • Sexing Fish

           In order to breed a species, the aquarist primarily needs to be able to distinguish between the sexes. Determining the sex of a fish is an important step in knowing whether one has a pair. The sexes can be easily distinguished by primary (shape of sex organs) and secondary difference (size, shape, color [sexual dichromatic], fin development). Males are frequently more colorful, larger, and have more elaborate fins. In some species, the males are slightly larger and the females are slightly rounder in the belly.
Selecting the Parent Fish
        Once males and females have been distinguished, a suitable pair or spawning group should be chosen. There are several important traits to seek in choosing the Parent fish.
✓ Choose fish that display good markings like strong coloration, good fin development, etc., That should produce attractive young ones.
✓ Only use healthy fish for spawning because unhealthy fish, if they will spawn, may produce unhealthy or deformed young ones.
✓Be sure that the pair is compatible. Many species cannot be put together in a breeding tank and expected to get along and produce young ones. In fact with many cichlids, pair form only after a group has been raised together in a breeding tank and expected to get along and produce young ones. In fact with many cichlids, pairs form only a group has been raised together for months or years. In certain species, one partner will build the other to death if their is no compatibility.
✓ Make sure that the pair is both of the same species because hybrids are usually sterile. With some cichlids and killifish, females of different species look similar.
Conditioning the fish to breed.

             In the wild, breeding is stimulated by a change in the environmental surroundings of the fish, and this can be created to some extent in aquaria. Presumably the circumstances that trigger breeding are multifactor, consisting perhaps of a combination of factor such as food availability, water temperature, length of daylight, and changes in water chemistry. A varied diet, with an increased level of protein is recommended for conditioning. Many species can be conditioned using a well-balanced flake food, though conditioning with live foods such as brine shrimp, insect larvae, and flying insects gives better results. A small increase in the ambient temperature can prove to be beneficial, while more lighting proves a stimulus for coldwater fish species, which are normally exposed to seasonal changes. The condition of the water is significant and introducing a pair to a fresh tank may produce success. If possible, the sexes should be separated three weeks before being re-introduced. The fishes, which prove reluctant to breed, it has been possible experimentally to inject them with specific hormones to stimulate reproductive activity, but such techniques are not available to the average aquarist.


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