Wednesday, February 13, 2019


              In India, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Cochin, Madurai are the most important breeding centers for Ornamental species with more than 150 full time and 1500 part-time breeders in the whole country. There is an urgent need to develop captive breeding techniques for all the important exportable species as the native stocks will soon be under pressure mainly due to heavy exploitation and loss of habitats and also to maintain an year round supply. Moreover, farm bred fish are far more amenable to aquaria. A few of the indigenous freshwater that have been bred are Colisa sota, C. fasciata, Oreichthys cosuatis, Gagata cenia, Danio dangila, Nandus Nandus, Puntius melanampyx, Puntius melanostigma, Puntius filamentosus, P. vittatus, Parluciosoma daniconius, Pristolepis marginata, Garra mullya, Nemacheilus triangularis, Danio malabaricus, Esomus danricus, Etroplus maculatus and Macropodus cupanus. Of the marine species, the clown fish and sea horses are of considerable importance. A weel-developed, disease-free broodstock, nutrient and balanced feed, appropriate temprature and water quality coupled with properly prepared nusery facilities are an essential requirement for successful spawning and larval rearing of ornamentals just as in case of other species of fish.
  Ornamentals include both oviparous (egg layers) and viviparous (live bearers) species. Oviparous fishes lay floating, adhesive or non-adhesive eggs that may be scattered, laid in bubbles nests or deposited on substrates or in shallow pits. Parental care is also Known and while female cichlids incubate them in their mouths, the father mothers the offsprings in case of sea horses. The breeding and rearing of egg layers is a little difficult but it is rather easy to raise the live bearers and the neo-hobbyists or small entrepreneurs should first begin with handling the live bearers. As an example, the breeding and culture techniques of the swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri, a highly popular Ornamental fish are described here in sufficient details.

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Monday, February 11, 2019


               It is unfortunate that the endemic Ornamental species were until recently neither promoted nor its potential realized, the species dominating the market being mostly of South American origin.

It is, however, true that these species are universally popular. The top ten "brands" are the tetra, guppy, goldfish, catfish, Molly, gourami, platy, loach, cichild and the Barb. Of the 30-35 species that are the favourite of aquarists, only a few are of Asian origin Brachydanio rerio and Puntius conchonius being the most common (Table 1). There is a growing preference for keeping large-sized fishes in the aquaria probably on account of their hardy nature and visibility.
The hill stream fishes belonging to the general Balitora, Barilius, Garra, Homaloptera, Lepidocephalus, Nemacheilus, psilorhynchus are considered to be cold water species, these are generally found in warmer Waters to and could be easily acclimated to be stagnant water conditions found in the aquaria. A higher level of dessolved oxygen is, however, a basic requirement of these species. Some of the other endemic species from the south are Aplocheilus lineatus, A. blocking, Danio malabaricus, D. aequipinnatus, Macropodus cupanus, Oryzias melastigma, Pristolepis marginata, Puntius melanampyx, P. mahecola, P.arulius, P. narayani, P.setnai, Etroplus maculatus and E. canarensis that are known to have an immense potential for export (Table 2). The wrasses (Labridae), damsels (Pomacentridae), parrot fish (scaridae), surgeons (Acanthuridae), trigger fish (Balistidae), goat fish (Mullidae), squirrel fish (Holocentridae), butterfly fish (Chaetodontidae) and rock cod (Serranidae) that inhabit the Lakshadweep lagoons rich in corals are amongst the most sought after marine ornamentals.

Friday, February 8, 2019

Breeding of Ornamental Fishes

           Ornamental fish keeping is one of the important hubbies in the world. The colourful, quiet, mute and decibel-free, eco-friendly pets in the world are a thing of beauty and Joy to the young and old alike and so dear to the hobbyists the world over. In the U.K., the number of aquarium keepers far exceeds that of cats' and dogs' being 50% of the households that own them as pets. Garmeny and France are next only to the UK followed by Italy with the fourth highest pet ownership in Europe. Spain, Netherlands, Belgium and Switzerland are other European countries where fish are maintained as popular pets. Fish is kept as a hubby by 25% of the households in the USA. However, these countries have to be importing the fish, the main exporters being located in Asia - Indonesia being a home to 35% world's Ornamental fish species. Production & trade of Ornamental fish, particularly cultured fresh water fish and plants forms the backbone supporting the global Ornamental fish industry. The Global Ornamental fish trade is estimated at around US $ 9 BILLION (FAO 2000). The US leads the import market followed by EU and Japan. The Asian countries export more than 50% of the aquarium fishes globally. Singapore is the epicenter of all the Asian trade and is there largest export of Ornamental fishes in the world. India is the natural abode of the entire gamut of Ornamental fishes available in the subcontinent. Due to ignorance about this wealth of the trade and lack of technical competence of this million dollar sector, India only managed to export Ornamental fishes worth around 30 million rupees. The North Eastern states contribute around 85% of the total market. Inability to recognize our natural resources, unavailability of easy founding, absence of local exporting agencies, lack of suitable low-cost breeding technologies and transportation facilities are the major hurdles in the speedy growth of this potential industry in India. Such a vast and important industry has the potential to contribute to the sustainable development of aquatic resources, but may face challenge due to increased attention to environmental and social issues.

Tuesday, February 5, 2019


Corner Filter:-
            Water is forced through it. On the inside you would find filter floss or other media. It is mainly a physical/mechanical filter. Beneficial bacteria settle on the medium and provided biological filtration. This very inexpensive filter is an excellent way to set up a hospital tank. Buy one for pennies on the dollar and use some gravel from your established tank. You will immediately have a working biological and mechanical filter for your hospital tank.
Canister Filter:-
              Basically an enhanced corner filter. A closed box where water is forced through filtration media ( mechanical end/or chemical). It can be placed inside the aquarium, or outside (underneath the aquarium or as hang on type). The canister filter has the most powerful mechanical filtration system, and can be used with messy eaters. The down side is that it requires frequent cleaning. Bacteria will also settle in this filter type. Biological filtration can be improved, by placing wet dry wheels at the outflow of the canister filter.
Power Filter:-
            The very easy to maintain power filter hangs on the back of the aquarium (easy access). Water is pulled through a mechanical filtration, using floss and insert cartridges. They also provide enough space for Chemical filtration media. Within the last few years a wet dry wheel (biowheel) was developed, to provide an even larger area for bacteria to settle. Wash it once in a week. Cost: Rs.400-1000/-
Protein Skimmer:-
              The protein Skimmer is a chemical filtration method. It takes out dissolved biological waste before it can decompose. This is achieved by a tubular design with air bubbles inside. The waste is attracted to the surface of air bubbles, which then rises to the water surface. There, a skimmer removes the biological waste. This filtration type has revolutionized reef tanks. It only works with high pH and salinity. This filter is for salt-water use only.
Sponge Filter:-
            A sponge filter looks like a tube with a sponge like material inside. As water flows through, bacteria will colonize the porous foam and establish a biological filtration. These sponges also serve as a mechanical filter, removing larger particles from the water. The advanced versions use two sponges, making it easier to preserve bacteria colonies by replacing the sponges at different times. Using a sponge from an established aquarium can also jump-start a new tank or quarantine/hospital tank.
Undergravel Filter:-
           The undergravel filter (UGF) is basically a perforated plate below the gravel. Water is pumped upward through the gravel by air bubbles, water stream, or a combination of both. This slow flow of water and oxygen allows the bacteria to colonize the gravel. The UGF is an aid for biological filtration. It does not remove larger waste particles. It has to be well maintained, especially through vacuuming of the gravel. UGF's are inexpensive, but have a tendency to clog up. It is recommended to replace this filter as they age. Of course, they can be combined with a power head as a power head as a pre-filter for larger particles.
Fluidized Bed Filter:-
              This filter is a recent development, using sand as a bacterial settlement media. In a tubular design, sand is fully submerged in water. The water is pumped upwards through the sand, allowing bacteria to settle within. Additional tube can be used as pre-filters (mechanical) and also for chemical filters using activated carbon. This filter provides a large surface for bacteria colonies, but sometimes lacks in providing enough oxygen for their performance.
Wet-Dry Filter:-
            Also known as trickle filter. This kind of filter was designed with consideration of the oxygen demand of beneficial bacteria. It consists of a plastic tube with unsubmerged media (floss, bioballs etc.) Over which water trickles - hence "Trickle Filter". The wet dry filter provides a large air to water surface. The larger the surface structure of the media gets the better it works. 

Saturday, February 2, 2019


There are three basic types of aquarium filtration system.
Biological filtration is the term used to describe beneficial bacteria, which is established during the initial cycling of the aquarium. These bacteria break down ammonia and nitrite and convert them into the less toxic compound nitrate. It is widely acknowledged throughout the aquatic community that these bacteria require a surface to attach and oxygen rich water.
        Biological filtration is essential and needs to be adequately established in every aquarium.
         It is recommended to medicate fish in a separate tank (hospital tank) when using antibiotics (anti bacteria), as extensive use of these medication will kill the bacteria.
Live rock and Sand are by all means biological filtration as well. In theory you could maintain an aquarium with these alone, however the tanks fish population would be restricted to small numbers. Always keep in mind, that biological filtration requires oxygen. An inadequate or interrupted supply will result in the failing of your biological filtration system
         Saltwater tanks can be successfully maintained using only a protein skimmer and biological filtration.
Chemical Filtration
       Chemical filtration removes dissolved wastes. The most common type of chemical filtration is activated carbon. Other, such as Along absorb ammonia, silicate, phosphates and so on. Carbon has established itself as "a must have" in the aquarium. still, be aware that some carbons leach phosphates. Another media for chemical filltration consists of zeolite, which will delay or disrupt biological filltration, especially during the cycle.

     Mechanical aquarium Filtration remove solid partcles from the water via the aquarium filter. It does not remove or convert ammonia, nitrite or nitrate. This filter type actually provides a means to remove free-floating waste before it decays. Mechanical Filtration will only be beneficial if the filter material is replaced every 2-4 weeks because the waste will still decay while trapped in the filter material. To save money on replacements, you can also rinse the filters in use or use on alternative filter such as filter floss, which costs only a fraction of replacement cartridges.
        Common types of filter media are paper cartridges, sponges, and floss. Mechanical filtration will be ineffective on matter that settled in the gravel. Use a siphon to remove these particles. Kill two birds with one stone - siphon during water changes! Be aware, that beneficial bacteria will settle on the filter media. Take this under consideration, and replace part of the media at a time if it's possible. Sponges will clog quickly and paper even faster. Filter floss is very efficient due to small and large openings, which will not clog as easily. Another benefit of floss is that you can easily do a partial change, reducing the amount of bacterial settlements that are removed.

Friday, February 1, 2019

Estimation of dissolved oxygen Reagents preparation

i.   Winkler's A solution (Manganous sulphate solution) - Add 480 g of managanous sulphate (MnSO4.4H2O) in 250 ml of distilled water, mix well and add more water to make the solution up to 1L mark.
ii.   Winkler's B solution (Alkaline iodide solution): Dissolve 700 g of pure potassium hydroxide (KOH) and 150 g of potassium iodide (KI) or 135 g of sodium iodide (Nal) in 800 ml of distilled water. Cool it and make it to 1.0 1 by adding more distilled water.
iii.   N/80 Sodium thiosulphate soulution - Dissolve 3.1 g of crystalline sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3.5H2O) in700 ml of distilled water and add 4 g of borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O). Add more distilled water to make 1 L; after borax is dissolved.
iv.   Starch solution - Take 1 g of starch powder in 5 ml of cool distilled water, mix well and add 100 cc of boiled distilled water. Add 3 g of boric acid as preservative.
v.   Concentrated H2SO4 - (36N, Sp. gravity 1.84)

Collect water samples in 250 ml water sampling bottles without agitating, bubbling or mixing with air from 1.5-2 ft below the top layer of the pond water. immediately after collection, carefully remove the stopper and add 2 ml each of Winkler's A and B solution by two different pipettes. Put the stopper and throughly mix the contents by shaking. A whitish to deep brownish precipitate will be formed which will settle at the bottom. After 15 minutes when the precipitate is settled down, add 2.0 ml of conc. Sulphuric acid to dissolve the precipitate. Take 100 ml of this solution and titrate with N/80 Na2S2O3 using starch as indicator to the colourless end point.
Dissolve oxygen level in water sample (mg/L) = ml of N/80 Na2S2O3 consumed in the titration or the burette reading.
         Dissolved oxygen parameters can be estimated directly by dissolved oxygen meter. However, the instrument is costly (0.6-1.0 lakh) and difficult to maintain.