Sunday, December 29, 2019

Nest-Builder Fish BREEDING

            Many fish species build some sort of Nest for their eggs. The nest ranges from a simple pit dug into the gravl or elaborate bubble nest nesmed with daliva-coated bubbles. The Gouramis,Anabantids and some catfish are the most common of this type of spawners. Nest builders practice brood care.

Spawning tank
           Nest-Builders should be provided with material with which to build their nests. For bubble-nest builders, fine leafled and floating plants should be provided, and the tank should have no water current to disturb the nest. Species that build nests in the substrate should be given fine gravel or sand.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Mouth-brooder Fish Breeding..

Picture attached from Google

            Mouth-brooders carry their eggs or larvae in their mouth. Mouth brooders can be broken up into ovophiles and larvophiles. Ovophiles or egg-loving mouth- brooders lay their eggs in a Pit,which are sucked up into the mouth of the female. The small number of large eggs hatch in the mother's month, and the fry remain there for a period of time. Many cichlids and soma labyrinth fish are ovophile month-brooders. Larvophile or larvae-loving month-brooders lay their eggs on a substrate and guard them until the eggs hatch . After hatching , the female picked up the fry and kees them in her mouth. When the fry can feed for themselves,they are released.

Spawning tank
Picture attached from Google

                Ovophile month-brooders can be bred in the main aquarium because the eggs are produced in the month cavity.However, it is better to separate mouth-brooders with eggs because of their potentially aggressive behavior. There are no special breeding tank requirements others than the usual tank set-up for the species. Larvophile mouth-brooders should be placed in a separate breeding tank because the eggs are produced in the month but laid on a surface where they are open to predators.

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Egg-buriers fish Breeding


              Fishes in this group usually inhabit waters that dry up at same time of the year. The majority of egg buriers are annual Killifish, which lay their eggs in mud . The eggs remain in a dormant stage until rains stimulat hatching.

Spawning tank

                  A peat-moss substrate is one of the best substrates of egg-burying species. The peat moss can be removed after spending and placed in plastic bag to be stored for weeks to mother (depending on the species). A new peat-moss substrate can be placed in the tank for further Spawning. In order to initiate hatching, the stored peat can be immersed in soft water.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Egg-depositor fish Breeding..

        In this case, the eggs are either laid on a substitute, like a stone or plants leaf or even individually placed among. Fine leafled plants like java miss. Egg-depositors usually lay Lee's egg than Egg-scatterers. Egg- depositors fall into two groups: those that care their eggs,and those that don't care. Among egg depositors that care for their eggs are cichlids and soma catfish. Cyprinids, various catfish, and Killifish make up the majority of egg-depositors that do not care for their young ones. These species lays their eggs against a surface, where the eggs are abandoned. These species do not usually eat their eggs.

                         Spawning tank
                 For those egg-depositors that care for their young ones, the parents can remain in the tank after spending. Substrate spawners, depending on the species, should be given a tank furnished glass panes, broad-leafed plants,or flat stones for Spawning sites. Some species such as Discus and Angelfish prefer vertical surfaces.  For cavity spawners,flowerpots turned on their side,coconut shells, and rocky caves are suitable Spawning sites. The tank should be furnished with either live or plastic plants to give the fish a screen of security.
Egg-depositors that do not care for their young ones should be given a tank furnished with fine and broad-leafed plants,Java Moss, or artificial Spawning mops. After spending the parents or plants with the eggs should be removed. If the plants with the eggs should be removed. If the plants containing eggs are removed,new plants should placed in the tank for future Spawning.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Egg Layers Fish Breeding

         Most aquarium species are egg layers with extranal fertilizataion.Within this group, fishes can be divided into five group-egg-scatterers, egg-depositors, egg- buriers,mouth-brooders,and nest-builders;  depending on how they lay and handle their eggs.
          These special simply scatter their adhesive or non-adhesive eggs to the substrate,into plants,or float to the surface. The Egg-scatterers either spawn in pairs or in groups. There is no parental vcare given and even they eat  their own eggs,so large amounts of eggs are produced. The Characins and Cyprinids lay their eggs this way.
                         Spawning tank
            Because egg scatterers often eat their own eggs, the Spawning tank has to be set-up so that the eggs fall out of the reach of parents. For Egg-scatterers like Barbs and Danios, which lay non-adhesive eggs, the Spawning tank can be furnished with a substitute consisting of two layers of marbles or nylon betting just about the tank floor. As the eggs are laid, they fall through the marbles or the reach of the parents. After spending is over, the eggs or the parents can be removed.

For egg scatterers that lay adhesive eggs like Thtras, the Spawning tank should be furnished with a substitute. The tank should be placed with fine-leafed plants. The eggs are laid amongst plants, and adhere to the fine-leaves. The parents should be removed after spending.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Breeding of Livebearers..

       Different groups of fishes reproduce in different ways.An understanding of how the various species go about breeding is indispensable to undertake breeding programme.In general the fishes can be divided into two broad categories -Egg layers and Livebearers.
Within this basic grouping, different species have their own ways of ensuring the survival of at least a proportion of their offspring..

                Livebearers are fish that bear live young ones.There are two types of Livebearers:ovoviviparous,where the eggs form and hatch within the female before birth; and viviparous,where on eggs are formed, and the young are nourished through an umbilica-like cord or from secretions by the female.Livebearers are often prolific,easily bred species.

(Picture attached from GOOGLE)

                            Spawning tank
The live bearing fishes are the easiest of all aquarium fishes to breed; indeed, the only problem usually encountered is that of saving the young from the cannibalism of their parents. Various traps have been designed for the relatively rapid separation of the young from their mother at birth. The most satisfactory arrangement is a screen of mosquito netting on a stainless steel or wooden frame, which can be wedged across the tank so as to confine the female to one end while allowing the young to pass. Despite of all these devices, the more natural method is having plants in abundance to provide shelter for the young, and removing the mother at the easiest chance. The best plants for young Livebearers are masses of Myriophyllum,Ambulia,Nutella,Utricularia,Etc.
                Raising the fry of Livebearers
 Livebearers young are quite large, and young fishes can feed on dry or other prepared food straight away.If they are given only prepared food, growth will be poor, but a mixture of live and dry food development. Later it matters much Lee's, although the fishes will still do better with a good proportion of live food. Suitable first live foods are micro worms,newly hatched brine shrimp, shredded earthworms, daphnia,newly hatched mosquito wrigglers or shredded white worms. Suitable dry foods include any fine powder food, such as dried shrimp finely ground,fine cereals, and liver or egg powder.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

মাছ চাষের উপযোগী পুকুর

পশ্চিমবঙ্গে রাজ্য জুড়ে শহর ও গ্রামাঞ্চলে বিভিন্ন ধরনের বদ্ধ্ জলাশয় রয়েছে, যেমন-- ডোবা, পুকুর, দীঘি, বিল, ঝিল ইত্যাদি। 
এছাড়া রয়েছে অসংখ্য ভেড়ী। বর্ষার সময়ে নদীর জল উপচে বেশ খানিকটা জমিতে জল জমা হয়ে পুকুর বা দীঘির আকার ধারণ করে। এসব জলাশয়ে বারোমাস জল থাকে। এই জল ধরে রাখা হয় বাঁধ দিয়ে ঘিরে। এই হল ভেড়ী। এখানে নদীতে জোয়ারের সময় জল ধরে রাখার সুযোগ থাকে। তাই কখনোই এখানে জলের অভাব হয় না। অর্থকরীভাবে মাছের চাষ করার জন্য এসব বদ্ব জলাশয়ের মধ্যে পুকুরই উত্তম। এবারে পুকুরের বিষয়ে আলোচনা করা হচ্ছে।
পোনা মাছের চাষের উপযোগিতা বিচার করে পুকুরের শ্রেণী বিভাগ করা হয়ে থাকে। এই ধরনের পুকুরকে চার শ্রেণীতে ভাগ করা যেতে পারে। যথা----

(1)  নিচু জমির পুকুর:-

বর্ষাকালে এই পুকুর জলে ভেসে যায়। গরমকালে জল কমে গেলেও সব সময় অন্তত ছয় থেকে আট ফুট পরিমান জল থাকে।

(2) পাড় উঁচু নিচু জমির পুকুর:-

এসব পুকুর বর্ষাকালে ভাসে না। প্রয়োজনে নালা কেটে নিকটবর্তী কোন খাল বা জলাশয় থেকে জলের সরবরাহ বাড়ানো চলে।

(3) উঁচু জমির পুকুর:-

উঁচু জমি হওয়ার দরুন বর্ষাকালে প্রবল বর্ষণ হলেও পুকুর ভেসে যাবার সম্ভাবনা থাকে না। গ্রীষ্মকালে 6-8ফুট জল কমপক্ষে থাকে।
প্রয়োজন মত নিকটন্থ খাল বা জলাশয় থেকে পুকুরে জল ভরার সুযোগ থাকে।

(4) পাড় উঁচু পুকুর:-

নিচু জমিতেই হোক আর উঁচু জমিতেই হোক নিয়মিত সংষ্কার না হলে, পুকুরের তলায় পাঁক জমে। বর্ষায় ভেসে যাবার সম্ভাবনা থাকে না। সারা বছরই চলনসই জল থাকে।

**মাছ চাষের উপযোগী পুকুর**

নিচু জমির অনেক পুকুরের জল যেমন আপনা থেকেই গ্রীষ্মকালে শুকিয়ে যায়, অনেক উঁচু জমির পুকুরও বর্ষার আগে শুকিয়ে খটখটে  হয়ে যায়।
সাধারণভাবে পোনা মাছ চাষের পক্ষে নিচু জমির পুকুর সবচেয়ে ভাল বলা চলে।কিন্তু বৈজ্ঞানিক প্রথায় মাছ চাষের জন্য এসব পুকুর ব্যবহার করার অনেক অসুবিধা।
রঙিন মাছ, রুই, কাতলা, মৃগেল ইত্যাদি মাছ চাষের জন্য পাড় উঁচু নিচু জমির পুকুর এবং উঁচু জমির পুকুরই সবচেয়ে উপযোগী বলে বিবেচনা করা হয়।তবে সেই সঙ্গে আর দুটি বিষয় বিচার করতে হয়। তা হল, পুকুরের তলাকার মাটির অবন্থা এবং পুকুরের পারিপাশ্বিক অবস্থা।
বর্তমান মৎস্য বিজ্ঞানীদের অভিমত, পার উঁচু নিচু জমির পুকুরই পোনা মাছ চাষের জন্য অধিকতর উপযোগী।এসব পুকুরের জল কোন সময়েই শুকিয়ে যায় না এবং তলায় পাঁকের অবস্থা ভাল থাকে। নিচু জমির পুকুর মাছ চাষের উপযোগী হলেও বর্ষাকালে পোনা মাছ ভেসে যাবার সম্ভবনা প্রবল। উঁচু জমির পুকুর যদি গভীর করে কাটা থাকে তবে তাতে ধানী বা চারা পোনা চাষ করা চলে।

আরো ভালো ভাবে বুঝতে আমার ভেড়ীর ভিডিওটি দেখুন।

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Thursday, August 8, 2019


           One of the attractions of Ornamental fish keeping is that the fishes may multiply in captivity. Although many techniques used for Ornamental fish breeding are not much difficult, the breeding methods for specific ornamental fish species are closely guarded secrets. Farmers have opereted almost entirely on their own, developing their own methods and rely on many years of  experimentetion. The chapter provides an overview of freshwater ornamental fish breeding. Because of the great diversity of species, only besic information is presented on breeding technology. Emphasis is placed on providing a summary of essential biological characteristics and requirements that characterize wide variety of species. The aim is to provide specific guidelines to assist in the development of appropriate management practices for freshwater ornamental fish breeding.

  • Sexing Fish

           In order to breed a species, the aquarist primarily needs to be able to distinguish between the sexes. Determining the sex of a fish is an important step in knowing whether one has a pair. The sexes can be easily distinguished by primary (shape of sex organs) and secondary difference (size, shape, color [sexual dichromatic], fin development). Males are frequently more colorful, larger, and have more elaborate fins. In some species, the males are slightly larger and the females are slightly rounder in the belly.
Selecting the Parent Fish
        Once males and females have been distinguished, a suitable pair or spawning group should be chosen. There are several important traits to seek in choosing the Parent fish.
✓ Choose fish that display good markings like strong coloration, good fin development, etc., That should produce attractive young ones.
✓ Only use healthy fish for spawning because unhealthy fish, if they will spawn, may produce unhealthy or deformed young ones.
✓Be sure that the pair is compatible. Many species cannot be put together in a breeding tank and expected to get along and produce young ones. In fact with many cichlids, pair form only after a group has been raised together in a breeding tank and expected to get along and produce young ones. In fact with many cichlids, pairs form only a group has been raised together for months or years. In certain species, one partner will build the other to death if their is no compatibility.
✓ Make sure that the pair is both of the same species because hybrids are usually sterile. With some cichlids and killifish, females of different species look similar.
Conditioning the fish to breed.

             In the wild, breeding is stimulated by a change in the environmental surroundings of the fish, and this can be created to some extent in aquaria. Presumably the circumstances that trigger breeding are multifactor, consisting perhaps of a combination of factor such as food availability, water temperature, length of daylight, and changes in water chemistry. A varied diet, with an increased level of protein is recommended for conditioning. Many species can be conditioned using a well-balanced flake food, though conditioning with live foods such as brine shrimp, insect larvae, and flying insects gives better results. A small increase in the ambient temperature can prove to be beneficial, while more lighting proves a stimulus for coldwater fish species, which are normally exposed to seasonal changes. The condition of the water is significant and introducing a pair to a fresh tank may produce success. If possible, the sexes should be separated three weeks before being re-introduced. The fishes, which prove reluctant to breed, it has been possible experimentally to inject them with specific hormones to stimulate reproductive activity, but such techniques are not available to the average aquarist.

In my Next Blog I will tell you about those Categories..

Wednesday, February 13, 2019


              In India, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Cochin, Madurai are the most important breeding centers for Ornamental species with more than 150 full time and 1500 part-time breeders in the whole country. There is an urgent need to develop captive breeding techniques for all the important exportable species as the native stocks will soon be under pressure mainly due to heavy exploitation and loss of habitats and also to maintain an year round supply. Moreover, farm bred fish are far more amenable to aquaria. A few of the indigenous freshwater that have been bred are Colisa sota, C. fasciata, Oreichthys cosuatis, Gagata cenia, Danio dangila, Nandus Nandus, Puntius melanampyx, Puntius melanostigma, Puntius filamentosus, P. vittatus, Parluciosoma daniconius, Pristolepis marginata, Garra mullya, Nemacheilus triangularis, Danio malabaricus, Esomus danricus, Etroplus maculatus and Macropodus cupanus. Of the marine species, the clown fish and sea horses are of considerable importance. A weel-developed, disease-free broodstock, nutrient and balanced feed, appropriate temprature and water quality coupled with properly prepared nusery facilities are an essential requirement for successful spawning and larval rearing of ornamentals just as in case of other species of fish.
  Ornamentals include both oviparous (egg layers) and viviparous (live bearers) species. Oviparous fishes lay floating, adhesive or non-adhesive eggs that may be scattered, laid in bubbles nests or deposited on substrates or in shallow pits. Parental care is also Known and while female cichlids incubate them in their mouths, the father mothers the offsprings in case of sea horses. The breeding and rearing of egg layers is a little difficult but it is rather easy to raise the live bearers and the neo-hobbyists or small entrepreneurs should first begin with handling the live bearers. As an example, the breeding and culture techniques of the swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri, a highly popular Ornamental fish are described here in sufficient details.

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Monday, February 11, 2019


               It is unfortunate that the endemic Ornamental species were until recently neither promoted nor its potential realized, the species dominating the market being mostly of South American origin.

It is, however, true that these species are universally popular. The top ten "brands" are the tetra, guppy, goldfish, catfish, Molly, gourami, platy, loach, cichild and the Barb. Of the 30-35 species that are the favourite of aquarists, only a few are of Asian origin Brachydanio rerio and Puntius conchonius being the most common (Table 1). There is a growing preference for keeping large-sized fishes in the aquaria probably on account of their hardy nature and visibility.
The hill stream fishes belonging to the general Balitora, Barilius, Garra, Homaloptera, Lepidocephalus, Nemacheilus, psilorhynchus are considered to be cold water species, these are generally found in warmer Waters to and could be easily acclimated to be stagnant water conditions found in the aquaria. A higher level of dessolved oxygen is, however, a basic requirement of these species. Some of the other endemic species from the south are Aplocheilus lineatus, A. blocking, Danio malabaricus, D. aequipinnatus, Macropodus cupanus, Oryzias melastigma, Pristolepis marginata, Puntius melanampyx, P. mahecola, P.arulius, P. narayani, P.setnai, Etroplus maculatus and E. canarensis that are known to have an immense potential for export (Table 2). The wrasses (Labridae), damsels (Pomacentridae), parrot fish (scaridae), surgeons (Acanthuridae), trigger fish (Balistidae), goat fish (Mullidae), squirrel fish (Holocentridae), butterfly fish (Chaetodontidae) and rock cod (Serranidae) that inhabit the Lakshadweep lagoons rich in corals are amongst the most sought after marine ornamentals.

Friday, February 8, 2019

Breeding of Ornamental Fishes

           Ornamental fish keeping is one of the important hubbies in the world. The colourful, quiet, mute and decibel-free, eco-friendly pets in the world are a thing of beauty and Joy to the young and old alike and so dear to the hobbyists the world over. In the U.K., the number of aquarium keepers far exceeds that of cats' and dogs' being 50% of the households that own them as pets. Garmeny and France are next only to the UK followed by Italy with the fourth highest pet ownership in Europe. Spain, Netherlands, Belgium and Switzerland are other European countries where fish are maintained as popular pets. Fish is kept as a hubby by 25% of the households in the USA. However, these countries have to be importing the fish, the main exporters being located in Asia - Indonesia being a home to 35% world's Ornamental fish species. Production & trade of Ornamental fish, particularly cultured fresh water fish and plants forms the backbone supporting the global Ornamental fish industry. The Global Ornamental fish trade is estimated at around US $ 9 BILLION (FAO 2000). The US leads the import market followed by EU and Japan. The Asian countries export more than 50% of the aquarium fishes globally. Singapore is the epicenter of all the Asian trade and is there largest export of Ornamental fishes in the world. India is the natural abode of the entire gamut of Ornamental fishes available in the subcontinent. Due to ignorance about this wealth of the trade and lack of technical competence of this million dollar sector, India only managed to export Ornamental fishes worth around 30 million rupees. The North Eastern states contribute around 85% of the total market. Inability to recognize our natural resources, unavailability of easy founding, absence of local exporting agencies, lack of suitable low-cost breeding technologies and transportation facilities are the major hurdles in the speedy growth of this potential industry in India. Such a vast and important industry has the potential to contribute to the sustainable development of aquatic resources, but may face challenge due to increased attention to environmental and social issues.

Tuesday, February 5, 2019


Corner Filter:-
            Water is forced through it. On the inside you would find filter floss or other media. It is mainly a physical/mechanical filter. Beneficial bacteria settle on the medium and provided biological filtration. This very inexpensive filter is an excellent way to set up a hospital tank. Buy one for pennies on the dollar and use some gravel from your established tank. You will immediately have a working biological and mechanical filter for your hospital tank.
Canister Filter:-
              Basically an enhanced corner filter. A closed box where water is forced through filtration media ( mechanical end/or chemical). It can be placed inside the aquarium, or outside (underneath the aquarium or as hang on type). The canister filter has the most powerful mechanical filtration system, and can be used with messy eaters. The down side is that it requires frequent cleaning. Bacteria will also settle in this filter type. Biological filtration can be improved, by placing wet dry wheels at the outflow of the canister filter.
Power Filter:-
            The very easy to maintain power filter hangs on the back of the aquarium (easy access). Water is pulled through a mechanical filtration, using floss and insert cartridges. They also provide enough space for Chemical filtration media. Within the last few years a wet dry wheel (biowheel) was developed, to provide an even larger area for bacteria to settle. Wash it once in a week. Cost: Rs.400-1000/-
Protein Skimmer:-
              The protein Skimmer is a chemical filtration method. It takes out dissolved biological waste before it can decompose. This is achieved by a tubular design with air bubbles inside. The waste is attracted to the surface of air bubbles, which then rises to the water surface. There, a skimmer removes the biological waste. This filtration type has revolutionized reef tanks. It only works with high pH and salinity. This filter is for salt-water use only.
Sponge Filter:-
            A sponge filter looks like a tube with a sponge like material inside. As water flows through, bacteria will colonize the porous foam and establish a biological filtration. These sponges also serve as a mechanical filter, removing larger particles from the water. The advanced versions use two sponges, making it easier to preserve bacteria colonies by replacing the sponges at different times. Using a sponge from an established aquarium can also jump-start a new tank or quarantine/hospital tank.
Undergravel Filter:-
           The undergravel filter (UGF) is basically a perforated plate below the gravel. Water is pumped upward through the gravel by air bubbles, water stream, or a combination of both. This slow flow of water and oxygen allows the bacteria to colonize the gravel. The UGF is an aid for biological filtration. It does not remove larger waste particles. It has to be well maintained, especially through vacuuming of the gravel. UGF's are inexpensive, but have a tendency to clog up. It is recommended to replace this filter as they age. Of course, they can be combined with a power head as a power head as a pre-filter for larger particles.
Fluidized Bed Filter:-
              This filter is a recent development, using sand as a bacterial settlement media. In a tubular design, sand is fully submerged in water. The water is pumped upwards through the sand, allowing bacteria to settle within. Additional tube can be used as pre-filters (mechanical) and also for chemical filters using activated carbon. This filter provides a large surface for bacteria colonies, but sometimes lacks in providing enough oxygen for their performance.
Wet-Dry Filter:-
            Also known as trickle filter. This kind of filter was designed with consideration of the oxygen demand of beneficial bacteria. It consists of a plastic tube with unsubmerged media (floss, bioballs etc.) Over which water trickles - hence "Trickle Filter". The wet dry filter provides a large air to water surface. The larger the surface structure of the media gets the better it works. 

Saturday, February 2, 2019


There are three basic types of aquarium filtration system.
Biological filtration is the term used to describe beneficial bacteria, which is established during the initial cycling of the aquarium. These bacteria break down ammonia and nitrite and convert them into the less toxic compound nitrate. It is widely acknowledged throughout the aquatic community that these bacteria require a surface to attach and oxygen rich water.
        Biological filtration is essential and needs to be adequately established in every aquarium.
         It is recommended to medicate fish in a separate tank (hospital tank) when using antibiotics (anti bacteria), as extensive use of these medication will kill the bacteria.
Live rock and Sand are by all means biological filtration as well. In theory you could maintain an aquarium with these alone, however the tanks fish population would be restricted to small numbers. Always keep in mind, that biological filtration requires oxygen. An inadequate or interrupted supply will result in the failing of your biological filtration system
         Saltwater tanks can be successfully maintained using only a protein skimmer and biological filtration.
Chemical Filtration
       Chemical filtration removes dissolved wastes. The most common type of chemical filtration is activated carbon. Other, such as Along absorb ammonia, silicate, phosphates and so on. Carbon has established itself as "a must have" in the aquarium. still, be aware that some carbons leach phosphates. Another media for chemical filltration consists of zeolite, which will delay or disrupt biological filltration, especially during the cycle.

     Mechanical aquarium Filtration remove solid partcles from the water via the aquarium filter. It does not remove or convert ammonia, nitrite or nitrate. This filter type actually provides a means to remove free-floating waste before it decays. Mechanical Filtration will only be beneficial if the filter material is replaced every 2-4 weeks because the waste will still decay while trapped in the filter material. To save money on replacements, you can also rinse the filters in use or use on alternative filter such as filter floss, which costs only a fraction of replacement cartridges.
        Common types of filter media are paper cartridges, sponges, and floss. Mechanical filtration will be ineffective on matter that settled in the gravel. Use a siphon to remove these particles. Kill two birds with one stone - siphon during water changes! Be aware, that beneficial bacteria will settle on the filter media. Take this under consideration, and replace part of the media at a time if it's possible. Sponges will clog quickly and paper even faster. Filter floss is very efficient due to small and large openings, which will not clog as easily. Another benefit of floss is that you can easily do a partial change, reducing the amount of bacterial settlements that are removed.

Friday, February 1, 2019

Estimation of dissolved oxygen Reagents preparation

i.   Winkler's A solution (Manganous sulphate solution) - Add 480 g of managanous sulphate (MnSO4.4H2O) in 250 ml of distilled water, mix well and add more water to make the solution up to 1L mark.
ii.   Winkler's B solution (Alkaline iodide solution): Dissolve 700 g of pure potassium hydroxide (KOH) and 150 g of potassium iodide (KI) or 135 g of sodium iodide (Nal) in 800 ml of distilled water. Cool it and make it to 1.0 1 by adding more distilled water.
iii.   N/80 Sodium thiosulphate soulution - Dissolve 3.1 g of crystalline sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3.5H2O) in700 ml of distilled water and add 4 g of borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O). Add more distilled water to make 1 L; after borax is dissolved.
iv.   Starch solution - Take 1 g of starch powder in 5 ml of cool distilled water, mix well and add 100 cc of boiled distilled water. Add 3 g of boric acid as preservative.
v.   Concentrated H2SO4 - (36N, Sp. gravity 1.84)

Collect water samples in 250 ml water sampling bottles without agitating, bubbling or mixing with air from 1.5-2 ft below the top layer of the pond water. immediately after collection, carefully remove the stopper and add 2 ml each of Winkler's A and B solution by two different pipettes. Put the stopper and throughly mix the contents by shaking. A whitish to deep brownish precipitate will be formed which will settle at the bottom. After 15 minutes when the precipitate is settled down, add 2.0 ml of conc. Sulphuric acid to dissolve the precipitate. Take 100 ml of this solution and titrate with N/80 Na2S2O3 using starch as indicator to the colourless end point.
Dissolve oxygen level in water sample (mg/L) = ml of N/80 Na2S2O3 consumed in the titration or the burette reading.
         Dissolved oxygen parameters can be estimated directly by dissolved oxygen meter. However, the instrument is costly (0.6-1.0 lakh) and difficult to maintain.

Thursday, January 31, 2019

Analytical Procedure for Chemical Parameters of Water Estimation of pH

         pH values can be measured directly buy a pH paper or pH meter by dipping the pH paper or pH meter electrodes into the pond water. For rough estimation, pH paper method is easy and cheaper. Dip the pH paper in sample water and compare the changed colour with standard colour chart provided with the pH paper.
Lovibond comparator is also handy for field test of water pH. For this initially do thepreparatory test with universal indicator to get the approximate value of the pH. place 10 ml of the water sample in the glass tube provided with the colour lovibond comparator and add 0.2 ml of universal indicator. Shake gently and match the colour against standard colour disc for the indicator. After ascertaining the approximate pH value, use suitable indicators to determine the exact pH. Bromothymol blue for pH range of 6.0-7.6, phenol red for 6.8-8.4 and thymol blue for 8.0-9.6 should be used as indicators. After adding the required indicator stir the sample and match the colour against appropriate standard colour disc and read the values.pH meter is used for direct and accurate estimation of pH. Power on the instrument, then dip the electrode in water and shake it gently till the reading in the meter is stabilized..

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Softening Your Water (Lowering the hardness)

            Some fish (e.g., discuss, cardinal tetras, etc.) prefer soft water. Although they can survive in harder water, they are unlikely to breed in it. Thus, you may feel compelled to soften your water despite the hassle involved in doing so. water hardness is of interest to aquarists for two reasons: to provide the proper environment for the fish and to help stabilize the pH in the aquarium. There are two types of water hardness: general hardness (GH) and carbonate hardness (KH).
A third term commonly used is total hardness which is a combination of GH and KH. General hardness is the more important of the two in biological processes. when a fish or plant is said to prefer "hard" or "soft" water, this is referring to GH. Incorrect GH will effect the transfer of nutrients and waste products through cell membranes and can effect egg fertility, proper functioning of internal organs such as kidneys and growth. Within reason, most fish and plants can successfully adapt to local GH conditions, although breeding may be impaired.
         Typical home water softeners or demineralisers soften Water using a technique knownas "ion exchange". That is, they remove calcium and magnesium ions by replacing them with sodium ions. Although this does technically make water softer, most fish won't notice the difference. That is, fish that prefer soft water don't like sodium either, and for them such water softeners don't help at all. Thus, home water softeners are not an appropriate way to soften Water for aquarium use.
  Fish stores also market "water softening pillows". They use the same ion-exchange principle. One "recharge" the pillow by soaking it in a salt water solution, then places it in the tank where the sodium ions are released into the water and replaced by calcium and magnesium ions. After a few hours or days, the pillows (along with the calcium and magnesium) are removed, and the pillow recharged. The pillows sold in stores are too small to work well in practice, and shouldn't be used for the same reason cited above.
           Peat moss softens water and reduces its hardness. The most effective way to soften Water via peat is to aerate water for 1-2 weeks in a bucket containing peat moss. For example, get a (plastic) bucket of the appropriate size. Then , get a large quantity of peat (a gallon or more), boil it (so that it sinks), stuff it in a pillow case, and place it in the water bucket. Use an air pump to aerate it. In 1-2 weeks, the water will be softer and more acidic. Use this aged water when making partial water changes on your tank.
         Peat can be bought at pet shopes, but it is expensive. It is much more cost-effective to buy it in bulk at a local gardening shop. Read labels carefully! You don't want to use peat containing fartilizers or other additives. Although some folks place peat in the filters of their tanks,the technique has a number of drawbacks. First, peat clogs easily, so adding peat isn't always effective. Second, peat can be massy and may could the water in your tank. Third the exact quantity of peat need to effectively soften your water is difficult to estimate. using the wrong amount, result in the wrong water chemistry. Finally, when doing water changes, your tank's chemistry changes when few water is added ( it has the wrong properties). Over the next few days, the chemistry changes as the peat takes effect. Using aged water helps ensure that the chemistry of your tank doesn't fluctuate while doing water changes.
           Hard water can also be softened by deluting it with rain water, distilled water or R/O water. Rain water is a good and cheap source of soft water. Harvest the rain water in fibre or cemented tanks. However, if there is any factory or industry nearby to your home or aquarium units and it is continuously emiting smoke in the sky and polluting the environment, then be careful. In such cases, rain may be very acidic and corrosive. R/O (reverse-osmosis) water is purified water made by an R/O unit. Home drinking wat

Monday, January 28, 2019

Some important aspects of water quality

        Aquarium should be filled with clear portable water. The quality requirement of water in the aquarium depends on the types of the fishes being kept there. The tap water is probably the safest source of aquarium water for majority of tropical fish and plants (see below the requirement for breeding). But it contains chlorine, which is toxic to fish even at low concentration.To remove the chlorine naturally, it is better to allow maturing the water for few days or aerating overnight before its addition. During emergency conditions dechlorination can be done with the commercially available chemical (sodium thiosulphate) purchased from the pet shop.
        The degrees of hardness have several biological effects upon aquatic life.Bicarbonates tend to prevent a solution from changing in acidity. Soft water, lacking this protection, may become particularly acidic when much carbon dioxide is present; such a change creates stress for organisms. For soft water species excessive hardness causes an organism problem in absorbing substances through its delicate membranes. This is most true of the sensitive naked cells of eggs and milt, so that soft water has been found to play a vital role in the successful reproduction of many species of freshwater fishes. Thus, at least for the purposes such as fish breeding, a soft solution is desirable.
        To maintain soft water, all sources of calcium carbonate such as calcareous rocks, gravels, coral, broken shell and algae must be kept out of the aquarium system whilst using only soft water initially and during exchange. Conversely, presence of such sources will preserve the water hardness.

            Adjustment and/or corrections to existing water chemistry MUST be made gradually. Stability is as important as water quality.

Thursday, January 10, 2019


Water hardness is often confusing and therefore overlooked by many aquarium owners. water hardness is important because it is closely related to pH and, just like pH, fish have certain levels of water hardness that they thrive in, and if the hardness is too far off, it can cause stress and death. Water hardness can be most simply described as the level of mineral in the water. Hard water has a lot of dissolved mineral, and soft water has very little dissolved mineral in the water. The most common mineral in water is calcium.
However, other minerals can also be present. Most people's tap water is either slightly hard or soft depending on where it comes from. Well water from areas that have a lot of limestone (calcium) is often hard. Water that comes from lakes (rainwater) is often devoid of mineral and is soft. It is important that you know the hardness of the water that you use in your fish tank. Some species of fish require hard water and others require soft water.

The other reason that hardness is important is that it affects pH. Hard water (high mineral content) is usually high in pH. Soft water (low mineral) is usually low in pH. The mineral in hard water will act as a buffer which will reduce the amount of acid in the water. The resulting water will be more alkaline and higher in pH. The problem arises when we try to lower the pH in hard water. If we add a commercial pH decreaser to an aquarium that is filled with hard water, the mineral in the hard water will buffer the water and make it difficult to successfully lower the pH. We would first have to remove the mineral from the water before we could effectively lower the pH. The same is true for trying to raise the pH in acidic water that is soft and does not contain much mineral. Until we add mineral to the water, it will be difficult to successfully alter and maintain a high pH level. So what do we do? Well, it is not too hard to add mineral in the form of calcium based rock, so making soft water hard and more alkaline (higher in pH) should not be too difficult. To soften hard water, you need to take the mineral out with a water softener, reverse osmosis or a specialized chemical that irreversibly binds up the mineral. Another option is to find a source of demineralized water for your fish tank (rain water is soft in nature).

Of course the alternative to all of that may be to tailor your fish and plant species around your existing water source. For beginning aquarist this may be the best solution. There are a wide veriety of tropical fish available and it is not difficult to find at least a dozen different species for every different type of water. Any decent book on a aquariums and tropical fish will list the individual pH and hardness requirements of the different fish species. If the water is too hard for your specific application (such as breeding certain species), simply mix it with deionized water until the required hardness is obtained. Most hobbyists don't feel the need to measure this particular water quality..